Mengenal ‘Modal Sosial’ Masyarakat Guraping

GURAPING adalah salah satu Kelurahan di Kecamatan Oba Utara, Kota Tidore Kepulauan. Luas wilayah Guraping 85 km2 dengan jumlah penduduk Guraping paling terpadat dari semua tiga belas kelurahan atau desa di Kecamatan Oba Utara. Perbatasan Guraping bagian selatan dengan Kelurahan Galala, sedangakan bagian utara berbatasan dengan Desa Gusale (kampong baru).

Lintas etnis dan suku menjadikan Guraping berkembang sangat cepat serta disebabkan terjadi perpindahan wilayah administratif Provinsi Maluku Utara dari kota Ternate ke Sofifi, yang tidak lain terdapat di Kelurahan Guraping.

Jika kita berbicara tentang Guraping, banyak dari kita yang mengetahui soal keindahan alamnnya, berupa wisata mangrove (pohon soki), dan atau Talaga Guraping, yang bisa dilihat ketika kita melintasi jalan raya Halmahera menuju ke Halmahera Utara, Halmahera Barat dan Halmahera Timur. Juga Pulau Sibu dan tanjung Guraping (Jiko Se Doe) yang menjadi kebanggaan masyarakat di sekitar wilayah Oba.

Akan tetapi, di sini saya tidak akan membahas sejarah atau kekayaan sumberdaya alam di Guraping. Menurut hemat saya, kekayaan masyarakat berupa kearifan lokal dengan terdapat nilai-nilai positif yang disebut modal sosial masih tertanam dan terjaga puluan tahun lamanya. Masyarakat Guraping menyebutnya  dengan sebutan Kumpulan.

Kumpulan “Modal Sosial” Masyarakat Guraping

Definisi kumpulan, menurut kamus bahasa Indonesia yakni; suatu yang telah dikumpulkan, atau suatu perhimpunan, kelompok serikat atau pengurus kumpulan para ibu-ibu. Maka kumpulan yang terdapat pada masyarakat Guraping mempunyai kesadaran sosial, saling membantu satu-sama lain untuk memenuhi kebutuhan ekonomi.

Hal ini sejalan dengan definisi modal sosial. Menurut Fakuyama (2001), yang mendefinisikan modal sosial sebagai norma informal yang membentuk kerjasama antara dua individu atau lebih. Norma-norma yang membentuk modal sosial dapat berkisar dari norma timbal balik antara dua teman atau lebih dari itu. Modal sosial ini lebih menekankan kerjasama kolektif di dalam masyarakat.

Selanjutnya, menurut Yustika (2008), yang mendefinisikan modal sosial tersebut menekankan terhadap pada norma atau jaringan yang memungkinkan orang untuk melakukan tindakan kolektif. Modal sosial lebih berfokus pada sumber dari pada konsekuensinya. Kepercayaan dan hubungan timbal balik dikembangkan secara terus-menerus.

Sejarah awalnya istilah modal sosial, dalam Cohen dan Prusak (2001). Pada tahun 1916, Hanifan yang pertama kali menulis tentang modal sosial, di mana saat itu dia membicarakan tentang komunitas yang terkait dengan sekolah di wilayah pedesaan. Hanifan menggunakan istilah modal sosial untuk membicarakan faktor substansi dalam kehidupan masyarakat yang antara lain berupa niat baik, rasa simpati perasaan persahabatan, dan hubungan sosial yang membentuk sebuah unit sosial.

Masyarakat Guraping tidak menyebutkan modal sosial. Masyarakat Guraping lebih mengenal dengan sebutan “Kumpulan”. Kumpulan bukan berupa kumpulan organisasi-organisasi formal yang kita ketahui selama ini, akan tetapi “Kumpulan” yang dimaksud adalah berupa bantuan masyarakat kepada masyarakat yang lain, ketika suatu keluarga di lingkungan kelurahan/desa, sanak-saudara mereka ada yang meninggal dunia, maka di sinilah kesadaran mereka untuk berkumpul saling membantu satu sama yang lain. Terdapat dua “Kumpulan” yang dilakukan oleh masyarakat Guraping, yakni; kumpulan “BESAR” dan kumpulan “KECIL”.

Seperti yang disampaikan oleh Fakuyama, bahwa ekonomi tidak akan pernah tumbuh di dalam ruang yang vakum, namun ekonomi selalu berakar dalam kehidupan sosial, sehingga sangat mustahil memahami ekonomi terpisah dari persoalan masyarakat dan nilai-nilai budaya. Pernyataan ini mengisyarakatkan bahwa perekonomian merupakan bagian dari dunia sosial dan tidak tersekat dari masyarakat.

Kumpulan “BESAR” dilakukan tepatnya pada hari ketujuh (masyarakat menyebutnya malam tujuh malam). Hari inilah yang telah ditetapkan oleh masyarakat, kemudian masyarakat berdatangan untuk memberikan “Kumpulan” berupa uang nominal sebesar Rp 10.000,- (sepuluh ribu rupiah) perkepala keluarga/perjiwa oleh masyarakat. Kumpulan “BESAR” telah diperuntukan kepada masyarakat yang berdomisili di kelurahan/desa Guraping.

Sedangkan Kumpulan “KECIL” dilakukan tepatnya pada hari ketiga (tiga malam), tapi jumlah nominal tidak sebesar seperti pada kumpulan “BESAR”. Nominal pada Kumpulan “KECIL” yaitu sebesar Rp 5000,- (lima ribu rupiah). Kumpulan yang kedua ini hanya diberlakukan untuk masyarakat yang berdomisili pada Dusun Rabodofo dan Dusun Talagangame (masyarakat menyebutnya Tola dan Mareku). Akan tetapi perkembangan Kumpulan “KECIL”’ tidak lagi membatasi mayarakat yang berdomisili pada dusun yang lain untuk mengikuti kumpulan “KECIL”.

Hal tersebutlah sebagai modal sosial masyarakat Guraping (Kumpulan) guna memenuhi kebutuhan ekonomi. Hasbullah (2006), menyampaikan bahwa modal sosial adalah sumberdaya yang dapat dipandang sebagai investasi untuk mendapatkan sumberdaya baru. Seperti diketahui bahwa sesuatu yang disebut sumberdaya adalah dapat dipergunakan untuk dikonsumsi, disimpan dan diinvestasi.

Kumpalan “BESAR” dan kumpulan “KECIL”, kita bisa temui pada acara tahlilan. Kumpulan yang dibuat masyarakat memberikan dampak positif dan sangat membantu masyarakat ketika membuat acara tahlilan saat sanak-saudara atau keluarganya meninggal, juga dalam meningkatkan pendapatan ekonomi.

Saling percaya dan saling mempercaya pada masyarakat akan memajukan suatu proses pembangunan ekonomi setempat. Hal ini diperkuat penyampaian Supriyano dkk (2009), juga menyebutkan bahwa modal sosial merupakan energi kolektif masyarakat (bangsa) guna mengatasi problem bersama dan merupakan sumber motivasi guna mencapai kemajuan ekonomi. Pandangan yang sama disampaikan oleh Fukuyama, bahwa rasa percaya dan saling mempercayai akan menentukan kemampuan suatu bangsa untuk membangun masyarakat dan institusi di dalamnya guna mencapai kemajuan.

Kemajuan pembangunan ekonomi tidak hanya adanya sumberdaya alam, sumberdaya manusia, dan kemajuan teknologi, akan tetapi faktor non ekonomi seperti faktor budaya dan agama mempunyai peran sangat besar dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi tersebut. Daerah kita, di Maluku Utara memiliki kekayaan modal sosial, selain  terdapat kekayaan alamnya.

Menurut hemat saya, kekayaan kita seharusnya terdapat pada modal sosial, bukan hanya pada kekayaan sumberdaya alam saja. Apa gunanya kita mempunyai sumberdaya alam yang kaya, jika masyarakat tidak saling percaya dan saling mempercayai untuk dikelola guna meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Masih banyak lagi modal-modal sosial pada kampung-kampung yang terdapat di Maluku Utara, seperti tradisi “Liliyan”, juga “Babari”. (*)

Penulis:

Musdar Musa
Musdar Musa

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